While I am familiar with most 19th and 20th century design movements, I have paid scant attention to the places that birthed them. Except perhaps for Barcelona, the home of Catalan Modernism, and Colombo, where Geoffrey Bawa created his signature style that is now termed ‘Tropical Modernism’. Our stay in his rather dilapidated country home in Bentota in January was almost a pilgrimage.
An invitation from the German National Tourist Office, India, to the Bauhaus themed Incoming Brand Summit in Weimar, last month, was an exciting opportunity to explore the origins of a modern architectural style that while very short-lived, left a lasting impact on every aspect of the post modern world.
A little idea that changed the world
Weimar wielded considerable influence in Europe during its ‘golden period’ (1758 – 1832) with a fair share of Renaissance buildings and landscaped parks that today constitute its ‘Classical’ UNESCO heritage. At the turn of the century, Grand Duke Charles Alexander decided that the best way to keep that influence culturally relevant was to found an art school that would be celebrated across Europe.
In 1910, his young successor Grand Duke Wilhelm Ernest merged the art, craft and sculpture schools to form the Grand Ducal Saxon School of Visual Arts, housed in the main studio (re)designed by Belgian architect (and director) Henry Van de Velde.
It is in this building, in 1919, that German architect Walter Gropius sowed the seeds of his radical experiment with functional architecture. It is here that the architect (who, incidentally, could not draw!) collaborated with the likes of Wassily Kandinsky, Paul Klee, Hannes Meyer and Ludwig Mies van der Rohe to formulate a philosophy that would change the way the world approached design forever. They named it Bauhaus, meaning ‘House of Building’.
Here, he encouraged the unlearning of old ‘rules’ to liberate creativity. Here, he propagated the confluence of art, craft and architecture and the use of industrial materials in a departure from the ornate aesthetic of the day. Steel and glass had already been used in projects like the Eiffel Tower, but never before on a less monumental, day to day scale.
Art and the people must form an entity. Art shall no longer be a luxury of the few but should be enjoyed and experienced by the broad masses.Walter Gropius
The aim is an alliance of the arts under the wing of great architecture. Although the Bauhaus concept is initially about architecture, the political tensions and the brevity of its time in Weimar, result in architecture not being taught as a subject (in Weimar) at all.
Our group follows enthusiastic student volunteers, sporting signature blue scarves, through the corridors of the main university building that seem to echo with the footsteps of the Bauhaus Masters. We are reminded that much of these (pre-Bauhaus) buildings and the artwork inside was destroyed by Nazi sympathisers hostile towards ‘degenerate’ art. They weren’t restored by the East German government right up until the late 1970s.
We walk through the skylight hall and past Henri van de Velde’s much Instagrammed elliptical staircase, past more stairways with murals by Oskar Schlemmer and Herbert Bayer, to the re-creation of the director’s office designed for the 1923 exhibition.
The (‘flawed’ but gorgeous) cantilevered yellow chair, Gropius’ functional desk (copy of the original that is in his Boston house/museum), the Gerrit Rietveld lamp, the geometric patterned Gertrud Arndt rug, the Else Mögelin wall hanging…all early, experimental, iconic Bauhaus. All bound by copyright, sadly, so I’m afraid I cannot show you photos, but here’s a link.
An object is defined by its nature. In order to function properly, one must first of all study its nature. For it to serve its purpose perfectly, it must fulfil its function in a practical wayWalter Gropius
Bauhaus-Universität, Weimar was designated a UNESCO site in 1996 and is today, a functioning university with disciplines in every aspect of art and architecture.
With the only other surviving Bauhaus building in Weimar – the Haus Am Horn – under restoration, and the new Bauhaus Museum not set to open until the centenary in April 2019, the only other Bauhaus related building left to see is Henri Van de Velde’s old office and the pre- Bauhaus, House Hohe Pappe. The 1920s interiors remind me of Frank Lloyd Wright. The light fixtures, like FLW’s, are particularly drool-worthy. Again, no photos, but worth a visit.
The sparkling culmination
The 1923 exhibition garners international acclaim, but fails to win over neither conservative, post-war public sentiment nor a disapproving government. The religious leanings of some Bauhaus staff, Mazdanan follower Johannes Itten in particular, adds to their troubles.
An offer of land and funding from the city of Dessau saves the Bauhaus School from closure and prompts the shift, in 1925, to a brand new campus built from scratch. The campus is dominated by a sparkling glass and steel edifice that is the culmination of Gropius’s early dream. An architectural icon to reflect Germany’s post-war resurgence. It has classrooms, workshops and residential spaces. And, it finally boasts an architecture program! The reportedly brilliant Masters’ Houses adjacent to the university block is, disappointingly, not included on the post-summit tour that I am on.
We cannot go on indefinitely reviving revivals…Neither medievalism nor colonialism can express the life of the 20th-century man. There is no finality in architecture – only continuous change.Walter Gropius
The aim of every minimalist feature of the Bauhaus Dessau – the splendid facade, the connecting bridge that straddles a dividing road, the varying window dimensions, the provisions for natural ventilation – reflect the principle of timeless utility, a kind of “functional-aesthetic perfection”. Herbert Bayer’s pared down typeface consisting of only lowercase letters, goes on to become the signature font of the Bauhaus. (In case you didn’t know, graphic design was significantly influenced by Bauhaus.)
“From Thuringia to the world”
The rise of the Nazi party spells doom for the Bauhaus school. Gropius quits in 1928, and after a brief stint in Berlin, he escapes to London before finally settling in the US. He is succeeded by Hannes Meyer and then Mies Van der Rohe who shuts shop in Dessau, and then tries hard to keep the semblance of a school running with his own funds in an abandoned telephone building in Berlin. A gestapo raid forces its closure in April 1933. Van der Rohe stubbornly resists migration until a work trip takes him to the US in 1937 from which he never returns.
A century on, Bauhaus continues to be relevant, not just in the schools of Weimar and Dessau and the impressive design repertoire of its founding members and their renowned students even beyond their exodus from Nazi Germany, but in every little thing we consider modern in our lives. There were several Bauhaus products displayed around the conference hall during the two days of the GNTB brand summit – sleek glass kettles, spartan chess boards, iconic tube chairs, painted wooden toys, the Bauhaus cradle – products one could be forgiven for assuming were designed yesterday.
It is ironic that even copies of these timeless legacies of Gropius’ egalitarian dream cost a king’s ransom today. To me, they are metaphors for the power of that small idea born in Thuringia that brought about big change in the world.
GNTB and the Bauhaus Association, in collaboration with the tourism boards of Thuringia, Saxony-Anhalt and Berlin, have big things planned for the Bauhaus centenary all next year. It includes the inauguration of three new Bauhaus Museums in Weimar, Dessau and Berlin set to house an incredible array of original Bauhaus artefacts. I can’t think of a better time to go. And not just for the design…the classical sites of Thuringia are equally captivating. More on that in my next post.
44 thoughts on “Weimar, Germany – Where Bauhaus Began”
Well, I missed a trick! I visited Weimar in, I think, 2000…but didn’t see Bauhaus things
Weimar was quite a revelation Sue. Can’t think of another city that is linked to so many big names 🙂
Hmm, so I understand
What an inspiration, how fortunate to be able to meander around a place of historic and magical innovation.
Indeed and I am grateful for the opportunity Sally. The city’s classical history is no less compelling.
Great account of the history of the movement, and I love all the onjects…the chessboard, the fabric, and the pot.
Glad you enjoyed it Dhara. The Bauhaus interiors and objects are incredibly well crafted. So disappointing to discover that we cannot publish any of the interior views. Had to get clearance from the university after my return for the staircase photos too!
What an interesting invitation, Madhu, and you obviously made the most of it. Happy days! 🙂 🙂
This was one invitation I could not refuse! Happy New Week Jo 🙂
What an interesting blog. Thanks for sharing this one on Weimar. 🙂
Thank you for reading Ian. Was worried this was too detailed…probably is for the average reader 🙂
Well I enjoyed it. It was a worthwhile and interesting research.
Appreciate your kind words Ian.
Thank you for sharing Madhu, as a German ( living in the USA) I am very familiar with the Bauhaus and it’s incredible artists.
I hadn’t realised there were so many big names involved in the movement. This trip was as educative as it was enjoyable for me. Thank you for reading Cornelia.
I do remember the name Bauhaus and that I learned about it in high school art lessons, sandwiched briefly somewhere between the Renaissance and Frank Lloyd Wright. I also remember the name Mies Van Der Rohe, but nothing more. Fascinating post Madu. It really was the beginning of modern design wasn’t it.
It was as if I was on that tour. Thank you, dear Madhu.
I appreciate your virtual company, thank you very much Eric 🙂
I agree with Ian that this is a very interesting and informative post, Madhu. How fortunate you were to be able to visit and thanks for letting me come along.
Thank YOU for reading Janet. Have a lovely day 🙂
You, too. 🙂
As an architecture buff (and longtime Chicago resident), I am very familiar with Mies van der Rohe, but it’s funny that I don’t naturally connect him to the Bauhaus movement in my mind. I think of his more mature work, especially in the U.S., and its glass and steel look, probably because I like it so much more. I enjoyed your post and its history, but I do not care for the look of any of these buildings in Weimar! I appreciate that they got the modern movement started, but on their own, I find them quite clumsy. I guess that’s how change happens, right? An awkward turn and then a refinement. (And of course, many people love this look; I hope you don’t take my opinions as anything other than friendly discussion!)
Ah no Lex, I completely understand what you are trying to say. In fact I am surprised that there haven’t been more such responses to any of my social media posts 🙂
None of these buildings can ever compete with the more sophisticated ones that came later, even those by Gropius himself. Much of it, apart from the Bauhaus Dessau, is essentially community housing. It is the history of that remarkable movement that is more inspiring. And the fact that all those big names began their careers there. The interior spaces and products are truly special though. I would buy any of the products in a heartbeat if I could only afford them 🙂
Fascinating Madhu, I really enjoy architecture but I don’t know anything about it. I’m aware though of how elements of Bauhaus has trickled into our cities and our day to day lives. I like most of the buildings, interiors and objects you’ve shared here, with the exception of the one with the Bauhaus name and red door, that one I find ugly and brutalist.
It’s great to see you as always and what a fabulous post this is.
Appreciate your feedback dear Gilly. I too found the Bauhaus interiors and product design more interesting than the buildings themselves.
Lucky you with your invitation to Weimar. Learned a few things from your article including the Mies van der Rohe story. Love your photography showing some of the Bauhaus art and architecture.
Glad you enjoyed this Joseph. Thank you so much for reading and for taking the time to comment…much appreciated.
That is great 🙂
Thank you Joshi 🙂
Thank you for the article. I live in Berlin – not far from Weimar – and I have never been. This is a true inspiration to visit finally.
Thank YOU for reading! Weimar is a lovely little town with loads of history. Spring 2019 would be an ideal time to visit.
Excellent post, Madhu.
Appreciate your kind words Jane. Have a lovely day 🙂
Thank you for this insightful explainer, Madhu. I had long known about the Bauhaus School and Walter Gropius and Mies van der Rohe, but not the finer details or the movement’s origins. It’s funny how the steel-and-glass behemoths Lex alluded to spawned the reaction that was Postmodernism, a style which I’m sure Gropius would have looked upon in horror!
You’ve just put Weimar on my list of places to go. I’ve been to the Bauhaus Museum in Berlin and absolutely loved it, but it appears there’s still so much more to discover.
As a chess lover too, I’m practically drooling over the set included in your photos… it’s so beautiful.
How fortunate you were to be afforded this opportunity, Madhu. Great photos and interesting narrative too. 🙂 Happy New Year to you. 🙂
Many artists from the Bauhaus movement emigrated to the USA to cities such as New York and Chicago, but there’s also a little-known remnant of their history still alive and well in the mountains of North Carolina. The Black Mountain College was established by Bauhaus alumni and is now both a school and museum, with another museum celebrating it’s legacy in the nearby city of Asheville.
Very interesting. I didn’t know the Bauhaus originated in Weimar. That name to me only reminds me of colossal inflation and leading to the election of Hitler.
Hope all is well with you Madhu.
What an incredible experience, you find these opportunities (or these opportunities find you!) and it is a gift ~ you and one of the most important quotes I’ve read in a while: “Art and the people must form an entity. Art shall no longer be a luxury of the few but should be enjoyed and experienced by the broad masses.” Wishing you safe travels, and looking forward to seeing more of your work soon (your Instagram photos are amazing!).
Reblogged this on THE FLENSBURG FILES.
With your help I learned something about Geoffrey Bawa. I prefer his Tropical Modernism.
Thank you for writing such a great post. The way you express things in content is just mindblowing. I am looking forward to reading more of your content. I hope you have a beautiful day.
Thank you for reading. Much appreciated.
This is beautiful. We couldn’t go to Weimar when in Germany because of lack of time, but it was so much on my mind. From Goethe to Alexander Avon Humpboldt to Bauhaus. This place is a delight. Bauhaus has truly influenced so much we don’t even realise. There have been entire genres of fonts, graphic design and illustration which so so pure Bauhaus…I am sure if I look around I will find a Bauhaus inspired WordPress Theme as well…